Amplitude of Demand Variations

This page analyses in detail the demand variations for different countries. Below is an example of demand variations showing hourly consumption throughout the day for a Tuesday in Winter and for a Sunday in Summer, which are the extremes of demand.

The full range of demand variations is taken as between a minimum of 3-5 hours UTC on Saturday/Sunday nights in summer and 18-20 hours UTC on Tuesday evenings in winter. The excess in winter between the regions Max and Min in the above plot, are analyzed to see the contribution of each fuel type to the difference and the results are shown in the plots below.

The demand variations between winter days and summer nights for different countries are typically between a ratio of 1.5 and 2.0 with Sweden, France and the United Kingdom having slightly higher ratios.

Examples of compensation for demand variations in different countries

The plots below explore how the total consumption demand variations are compensated by the different types of generation

For Germany and Spain the difference is shared largely by fossil, Wind and Hydro. For Switzerland and Slovakia the difference is taken mainly by Hydro.

For France the difference is largely taken by Nuclear and partly by Hydro and Fossil. For Sweden mainly be Hydro and partly by Nuclear and Fossil.

For the United Kingdom and Italy the difference is largely taken by Fossil.

Below summary plots of demand variation compensation.

Norway has 95% Hydro generation and large exports which make the max generation larger than min consumption. 

Some countries have very low demand compensation by hydro.

The United Kingdom has 90% of demand variation compensated by increased fossil generation.