Electricity #Wind Power


Generation of wind electricity is very intermittent due to weather fluctuations. It is obvious to everyone that wind speed is very variable, but what is less obvious is the fact that these variations are coherent over whole countries such that the total country-wide wind power output can fall to very low values.

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Wind turbines have cut-in speed around 12 km/h and below this wind speed, wind turbine electricity output is zero. Examples of wind speed distributions in NW Europe Wind capacity map for NW Europe. Example of coherent low electricity generation all over NW Europe in Feb 2019.

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A large fraction of wind energy production in Europe is located offshore in the North Sea or onshore in the low lying regions around it. Wind speed is very correlated on both coasts of the North Sea and so wind production is correlated in adjacent countries.

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The amplitude of wind fluctuations is typically brtween 5 and 60% of installed capacity.

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Countries with >20% of Wind+Solar in generation mix: DK; LT; IE; DE; ES; NL; PT; GR; UK.

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Denmark is the largest European country where wind+solar energy dominants the electricity generation. To compensate for the large wind fluctuations it has a large dependence on imports which are 17% net over the year but often much greater for short periods

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