The intensity of carbon emissions in electricity generation depends on the mix of fuel types. Fossil fuel generation has the highest carbon emissions and hydroelectric and nuclear generation have the lowest. Renewable energy gives medium carbon emissions because weather fluctuations necessitate back-up with fossil fuel.
Wind power production is extremely variable due to weather fluctuations. To satisfy consumer demand during low wind periods, fossil fuel generation must be increased. Further, because weather patterns are large scale in Europe the wind variations are often similar in in close-by countries.
Denmark has 50% of renewable energy in the local generation mix. In order to meet consumer demand for electricity in the periods with low wind, back-up is provided with fossil fuel generation and imports.
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