Magnetic Confinement Fusion image
Magnetic confinement fusion uses magnetic fields to confine a plasma inside a vacuum vessel.

Magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) is one of two major branches of fusion research, along with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) .

The magnetic approach began in the 1940s and absorbed the majority of subsequent research and development. Magnetic confinement fusion uses the electrical conductivity of the plasma to contain it through interactions with magnetic fields.

Developing a suitable arrangement of fields that contain the fuel, without excessive turbulence or leaking, is the primary challenge of this technology.

The main magnetic confinement machine developed were at first Z-pinch devices followed by stellarators and then tokamaks. JET, ITER and DEMO use the MCF method.