The Tokamak fusion reactor concept was invented in Russia in the 1950s. The by the 1970s is was clear that Tokamaks had much better performance than any other existing device and subsequently they became the focus of mainstream fusion research.
Many Tokamaks have operated in the past 50 years, the most recent notable devices are:
- Tore Supra, France, operational 1988-2013.
- TFTR, USA, operational 1982-1997, experiments with deuterium-tritium plasma.
- JT60, Japan, operation with various upgrades 1985-2022.
- JET, UK, operational 1983-2022, experiments with deuterium-tritium plasma.
- ITER, France, in construction 2005-2035.
- DEMO, Various countries, generic name given to designs for future prototype fusion power plants.
The pages Essentials of Plasma Physics
and Tokamak Fusion Reactors
go into details of the technology of tokamaks.